introduction to lithium battery -凯发官方网站
lithium battery is a primary battery with lithium metal or lithium alloy as cathode material and non-aqueous electrolyte solution. it is different from rechargeable battery, lithium-ion battery and lithium-ion polymer battery. the inventor of lithium battery is edison. because the chemical properties of lithium metal are very active, the processing, storage and use of lithium metal have very high requirements for the environment. therefore, lithium battery has not been applied for a long time. with the development of microelectronic technology at the end of the 20th century, miniaturized equipment is increasing, which puts forward high requirements for power supply. lithium battery has entered a large-scale practical stage.
lithium battery refers to the battery containing lithium (including metal lithium, lithium alloy, lithium ion and lithium polymer) in the electrochemical system. lithium battery can be roughly divided into two categories: lithium metal battery and lithium-ion battery. lithium metal batteryis usually non-rechargeable and contains metallic lithium. lithium ion battery does not contain metallic lithium and can be recharged.
principle of battery chemical reaction
lithium metal battery
lithium metal battery is a kind of battery with lithium metal or lithium alloy as cathode material and non-aqueous electrolyte solution. the earliest lithium battery uses the following reaction: li mno2 = limno2, which is a redoxreactionand discharge.
lithium ion battery
cathode materials: there are many optional cathode materials. at present, lithium iron phosphate is mostly used in mainstream products.
it was first used in cardiac pacemaker. the self-discharge rate of lithium battery is very low and the discharge voltage is stable, so that the pacemaker implanted into the human body can operate for a long time without recharging. lithium batteries generally have a nominal voltage higher than 3.0 volts, which is more suitable for integrated circuit power supply. manganese dioxide batteries are widely used in calculators, digital cameras and watches.
in order to develop more excellent varieties, people have studied various materials, so as to create unprecedented products. for example, li/so2batteries and li/socl2 batteries are very characteristic. their cathodeactive material is also the solvent of electrolyte. this structure only appears in the electrochemical system of non-aqueous solution. therefore, the research of lithium battery also promotes the development of electrochemical theory of non-aqueous system. in addition to using various non-aqueous solvents, people have also studiedpolymer thin film batteries.
in 1992, sony successfully developed lithium ion battery. its practicality greatly reduces the weight and volume of people's portable electronic devices such as mobile phones, laptops and calculators. the usage time is greatly extended. because lithium-ion battery does not contain heavy metal cadmium, compared with nickel cadmium batteries, it greatly reduces the pollution to the environment.